Tuesday, May 26, 2009
From last week, we learned the word "buyut" means masajids, but it also refers to the houses of the believers. For the sisters, the house is their masajid.
The Prophet (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam) said, "Do not make your houses as graveyards." If we always pray in the masajids, then we should pray our sunnash at our homes, so that prayer is established. Your house is not a hotel. One should carry the spirit of the masajid to their house. We need to make our houses an Islamic environment as much as we can. For the sisters, the house is their masajid.
رِجَالٌ لَّا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ
يَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَالْأَبْصَارُ
[Are] men whom neither commerce nor sale distracts from the remembrance of Allah and performance of prayer and giving of zakah. They fear a Day in which the hearts and eyes will [fearfully] turn about.
salah (prayer) الصَّلَاةِ
they fear يَخَافُونَ
in it فِيهِ
This ayah discusses about those that give priority to obeying Allah (swt) and doing what He wants and pleases Him over doing what they want and what pleases them. The ayah was revealed when Abduallah bin Umar was in the marketplace and the iqamah for prayer was called, so they closed their stores and went to the masjid and the ayah was revealed. They feared the punishment of missing prayer on the Day of Judgement. The reflects on how one should commit to salah ON time and focus on the salah itself (the quality of it). We should worry about praying our five obligatory prayers with the quality and not worry about the quantiy of salah we pray (meaning the extra sunnah).
What determines the quality of salah?
o Intention (niyaa`)
The Prophet (sallahu alaihyi wa salaam) said "Pray as you see me pray."
لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُواْ وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
That Allah may reward them [according to] the best of what they did and increase them from His bounty. And Allah gives provision to whom He wills without account.
may reward them لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ
of what مَا
they did عَمِلُواْ
And increase them وَيَزِيدَهُم
and Allah وَاللَّهُ
to whom مَن
He wills يَشَآءُ
In the previous ayah, Allah states those that have the fear of Day of Judgment and then in this ayah, Allah states their reward. Its not the quantity of your deeds, but the QUALITY of your deeds. Ahsaan amala. If Allah was to reward us for what we have done, then we have not deserved it.
وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَآءً حَتَّى إِذَا جَآءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئاً وَوَجَدَ اللَّهَ عِندَهُ فَوَفَّـهُ حِسَابَهُ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ
But those who disbelieved - their deeds are like a mirage in a lowland which a thirsty one thinks is water until, when he comes to it, he finds it is nothing but finds Allah before Him, and He will pay him in full his due; and Allah is swift in account.
And for those who وَالَّذِينَ
Their good deeds أَعْمَـلُهُمْ
to assume/to think/to perceive يَحْسَبُهُ
thirsty one الظَّمْآنُ
he comes to it جَآءَهُ
he finds it يَجِدْهُ
and he finds وَوَجَدَ
with him عِندَهُ
who will pay him فَوَفَّـهُ
his due حِسَابَهُ
and Allah وَاللَّهُ
This ayah is full of balagaha!!!
A kafir is one who does not submit or reject the faith (non-Muslims).
There are two kinds of disbelievers that Allah sets forth. In this ayah, we focus on the first kind. The first one is that of the disbelievers who call others to their disbelief, thinking that they have good actions and beliefs. Their likeness is that of a mirage which is seen in a desert plain, looking from a distance as if it is a deep sea. If a person who is in need of water sees the mirage, he thinks that it is water so he heads towards it thinking to drink it. But when he reaches it, he finds nothing. So the disbeliever thinks he is doing something good and that he has achieved something, but when Allah judges him on the Day of Judgment, Allah will bring to account and examine his deeds. H will find that nothing has been accepted either because of lack of belief or that he did not follow the proper ways of Shari'ah.
Narrated from Ubayy bin Ka`b, Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and others, it was reported that on the Day of Resurrection it will be said to the Jews, "What did you used to worship'' They will say, "We used to worship `Uzayr the son of Allah.'' It will be said to them, "You have lied. Allah has not begotten a son. What do you want'' They will say, "O Lord, we are thirsty, give us something to drink.'' It will be said to them, "Do you not see'' Then Hell will be shown to them as if it is a mirage, parts of it consuming other parts, and they will go and fall into it. This is the parable of one whose ignorance is deep and advanced.
أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ يَغْشَـهُ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِّن فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ظُلُمَـتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَآ أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا وَمَن لَّمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُوراً فَمَا لَهُ مِن نُورٍ
Or [they are] like darknesses within an unfathomable sea which is covered by waves, upon which are waves, over which are clouds - darknesses, some of them upon others. When one puts out his hand [therein], he can hardly see it. And he to whom Allah has not granted light - for him there is no light.
like the darkness كَظُلُمَـتٍ
body of water/ sea بَحْرٍ
high seas لُّجِّىٍّ
covers it يَغْشَـهُ
top of it فَوْقِهِ
some of it بَعْضُهَا
on top فَوْقَ
of others بَعْضٍ
stretches out أَخْرَجَ
hardly لَمْ يَكَدْ
he can see it يَرَاهَا
and he who وَمَن
for him لَهُ
for him لَهُ
In this ayah, Allah describes the second type of disbelievers. Those whose ignorance is simple, uneducated, blindly follows the leaders of disbelief, Allah compares them to those he can hardly see it because it is so intensely dark. This is the parable of the heart of the disbeliever who merely follows and does not know the true nature of the one whom he follows or where he is going.
Monday, April 27, 2009
Shaykh Jamal Zarabozo said that when we study the Qur’an, we have to make sure our intentions are correct. Sometimes what we want from the Qur’an, is not as important as what the Qur’an wants for you to gain. Is what we want consistent with what the Qur’an is for? The Qur’an came to lead, to show you the way, to guide; not to follow.
We are not huffadh (preservers) of the Qur’an, the Qur’an is huffadh (preserver) of us.
Verse 35 of Surat an-Noor – Light Upon Light
"Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of His Light is like a niche within which there is a lamp; the lamp is within glass, the glass as if it were a pearly star lit from the blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil would almost glow even if it were untouched by fire. Light upon light. Allah guides whom He wills. And Allah presents examples for all people, and Allah is Knowing of all things."
Allah describes Himself as light; His Message as light; the Prophet Muhammad (s) as light.
Noor - Light
Sama’ - Sky, heaven
`Ard - Earth
Mithal - Like, similar
Miskha - Niche
Misbah - the source or projector of light
Zujaaja - Glass vessel
Kokabun - Star
Duree - Star made of pearls, very shiny OR reflective, reflection
Yuqad - To light
Sajarah - Tree
Mubarakah - Blessed
Zaytuna - Olive
Sharqeeya - East
Gurbiya - West or western
Yaqad - About
Zayt - Olive oil
Yudi’ - Luminate, to glow
Tamsasa - To touch
Sometimes we get bothered by the rules and guidelines set down by Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala but they are for our own benefit. This is a reminder to us, while Allah is giving us guidelines, that this is truly a mercy come to us, a light to lead us out of darkness. This should not become a source or cause of our misery – Allah gave us these guidelines to benefit us.
Ayat un-Nur is so detailed. There is a special place which is chosen because it allows for the most light to be shone – that niche is then filled with a lamp, whose glass shines from its own purity. The glass is crystal clear, and is so pure that it glows. The light within the lamp is lit from olive oil, from a blessed olive tree. The olive oil itself is so pure that it glows. If you see extra virgin olive oil, it is thick and smells beautiful. So the oil glows, the glass shines, the lamp is placed in a niche which allows for the most light… The olive tree is neither in the west or the east – it is in a position where it will get sun at all times, at sunrise and sunset, which will make it produce only the best oil. Light upon light – meaning the light of the olive oil, on top of the light of the glass, on top of the light of the lamp, which is in a niche that provides light in all directions.
This is Allah subhanahu ta`ala – His Light, the light of His Message, and the light of the Messenger (s). What does this mean? That the Sunnah and the Shari’ah are carefully planned and placed to provide the most light and guidance in this life and the hereafter. Light upon light – you must bring together the light of your iman with the light of the divine message and its guidelines. This can also be taken as the light of the Qur’an and the Sunnah together. Both are needed – one will not suffice.
Ayah 36 – “In houses which Allah has ordered to be raised and to be honored. And then His name is remembered in those houses, exalting Him in the mornings and the evenings.”
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Faqih wants to start a campaign in the next two weeks to change how we treat masajid. We should not disrespect the masajid. We need to go to the masjid and glorify Allah’s names in the mornings and the evenings. We need to maintain our masajid. We must cultivate love and respect to the Houses of Allah. The masajid belong to Allah, do not celebrate or praise anyone besides Allah within them. The masjid does not belong to the people.
- Come next week with ideas about what we can do about the masjid. Can we pull off a national Masjid day: clean them, decorate them? We need to connect and respect the masjid. Bring awareness of the adab and etiquette of the masjid. Next week the class will start at 7pm and we will have Q&A to discuss this idea.
Tuesday, April 14, 2009
The Prophet (saws) prohibited the believers from sitting (gathering) in the streets (sitting on the side of the road). The sahabah said that they didn’t have any other option and that this was part of their tradition. The prophet then said, “If you insist, then observe the rights of the streets.
The etiquettes are:
1. Lowering your gaze
2. Return the greeting (salam)
3. Enjoin what is good & forbid what is wrong
4. Hold back from any harm upon anyone
(32) And marry the unmarried among you and the righteous among your male slaves and female slaves. If they should be poor, Allah will enrich them with His bounty, and Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.
ankiHu : imperative form of nakaHa; nikaH means marriage; implies a two-way commitment
al-ayama (plural of ayyim) : unmarried individual
al-SaliHin : righteous; pious
`ibadikum (plural of `abd) : male slave
ima’ikum (plural of amah) : female slave
fuqara' (plural of faqir) : needy
yughnihim : to enrich them
* Allah in this verse is showing the proper and Islamic method of fulfilling one’s physical and emotional needs.
* The Prophet (saws) says, “If a man with whom you are pleased with his level of commitment to his faith and his trust, marry him your daughters. If you do not follow this, it will turn into a huge fitnah/corruption will spread.”
* This verse is addressing the guardians (parents, fathers, uncles, heads of households, the community leadership, etc.) to marry the unmarried children/community members, to pursue it and to help facilitate this as well.
* If the unmarried chooses not to get married, then no one can force him. This ayah makes the act of getting married mustahabb (recommended), even though it is a sunnah. But the prophet (saws) said, “Oh young men, whosoever can afford marriage, then let them get married, for it is more effective in helping you lower his gaze and preserve his chastity. And whosoever cannot do so, then let him fast.”
Slaves and their Status in Islam
* Abolishing slavery completely would have caused a war when Islam was revealed.
* Instead, it regulated it and changed the perception of slaves. Here, Allah (swt) says to help them get married, if they are righteous.
* Unjustified physical abuse to a slave is grounds for the slave to obtain their own freedom.
Waliyy – guardian
* This ayah implies that having a waliyy is necessary, at least on behalf of the woman.
* Financial ability is necessary, but it is not a condition. Use marriage as a means to achieve financial independence for marriage will motivate a person to achieve financial independence.
Tuesday, April 7, 2009
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Faqih: I want this class to be interactive. Words of advice from his Shaykh’s teacher: Three points. “Lower your gaze, preserve your chastity; no matter how hard you try, you will not be able to avoid it. If you ever see something haraam, then make sure you resort to the remedy or cure for it: tawba and astaghfar.”
Verses 30 - 31
“Say O Muhammad to the believing men to lower their gaze (from the haraam), to guard their private parts (or preserve one’s chastity) at all times. That is most purifying for them (their hearts, souls, their very person) and indeed Allah is well-acquainted with what they do.
Say to the believing women to lower their gaze as well and protext their private parts, and not show their beauty except that which appears of it normally. And let them strike their khimar over their junubiyan, and not expose their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers, their sons, their husbands’ sons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons, their sisters’ sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or children who have not reached puberty. And let not women stamp their feet to show the adornments they have hidden. And turn to Allah, all of you O believers, that you may succeed.”
This is our personal firewall from spiritual viruses. This is meant to enforce a pure environment which will allow us to preserve and maintain haya`.
What is desensitization? It is when something that would be considered shocking, due to overexposure, becomes commonplace and normal. Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala knows that we have this weakness, and He knows that if we are constantly exposed to wrong, it will mean we will no longer know what is right and what is wrong. It is part of our innate nature, part of our fitra, to cover our private parts and not look at other people’s private parts. Haya` is part of our fitra. But through constant exposure, we can get desensitized and lose our sense of haya` - and this can become widespread throughout society. This means we can no longer have a virtuous society.
Example: Ted Bundy who is a mass killer and rapist. It all started one day when he was driving home from work and he saw a magazine with a half-naked person on the cover and bought it -> addicted to porn -> mass rapist/killer. That’s how it all started.
When one lowers their gaze, they preserve the purity and innocence of their hearts and spirits. They are able to preserve their chastity and worship Allah. To stare (out of curiosity or lust) is not allowed. In the Shari’ah you cannot look at a person of the opposite gender for a long period of time; you also cannot look at someone from the same gender for a long time if it is out of lust. This message is for he true believers, those who want to reserve this special connection and relationship with Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala and maintain their purity. Knowledge is light in the hearts of the believers. It cannot be given to sinners.
Why did Allah (swt) address men and women separately?
Allah is pointing out the danger of not following these acts, and enforcing that this is an issue for believing men and women. It can also be specific instructions to each gender. It may also be that they disobey for different reasons, which is why He addresses them differently.
Allah (swt) told the Believers to also lower their voices while around the Prophet (saws).
Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala honors women in the Qur’an. The body of a woman should be put on a pedestal – it is where life is made. This includes the bodies of the most sacred people that walked on Earth – they were shaped in the body of a woman. That body should not be exploited or misused or reconstructed; it should be preserved. Which religion honors it the most? Islam. These ayat are one place where Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala honored the bodies of women. Generally speaking, women have a beauty. It is not to be flaunted, except that which normally appears. Does that mean women should not expose their bodies except that which happens in normal situations? What does that mean?
The khimar is a head-covering. The junubiyan is the upper chest area.
The husband and wife can see anything of each other. Besides that, there are certain categories of men who can see but the Sunnah defines the limits of what can be seen. So the fathers (which includes grandfathers, great-grandfathers, etc. on the mother and father side), or their father-in-laws, or their sons (grandsons, great-grandsons, etc.), the sons of their husbands (step-sons), or their brothers, or their brothers’ sons, or their sisters’ sons (nephews whether from half or full or foster siblings), or from the believing women, or their right hand’s possessions, or men who do not desire – old men or mentally-handicapped men, or children who have reached an age where they can distinguish beauty. We are not only responsible for ourselves, we are also responsible for those we affect – we will be asked about tempting others. (In Surat an-Nisa, the uncle is part of the mahram).
Lowering The Gaze
Bad images – one glimpse – is an arrow from Shaytan that is aimed at your heart.
When Can People See Each Other (Hair, etc.)
* Emergency situations and for medical treatment.
* During an engagement, when both parties are ready to get married (like seriously right away).
* For security reasons or criminal/legal reasons
* Women who understand the rule of not exposing a Muslim woman, can see you without hijab.
o You should not take off your hijab in public places, like bathrooms, where there are non-Muslim women.
o If you violate this ruling, this will be considered a sin.
A foster child can be breastfed anytime in two years for it to be considered a foster child.
Friday, March 20, 2009
(27) Oh you, who have believed, do not enter houses other than your own houses until you ascertain welcome and greet their inhabitants. That is best for you; perhaps you will be reminded.
(28) And if you find no one therein, still, enter not until permission has been given. And if you are asked to go back, go back, for it is purer for you, and Allah is All-Knower of what you do.
(29) There is no blame upon you for entering houses not inhabited in which there is convenience for you. And Allah knows what you reveal and what you conceal.
root: dakhala; to enter; penetrate
root: bayt; plural of home; house; private space; habitat; apartment
root: anisa; make yourself familiar (known)
root: salam; to salute
root: wajada; to come upon; to arrive to
root: adhina; to be given permission
root: raji`a; to go back; to turn away; retreat
burden; blame; sin
inhabited; lived in; occupied
not; other; than
* These ayahs have to do with respecting one’s privacy. They honor the sanctity of one’s privacy. It is a God-given right. Crossing or violating ones privacy could lead to many issues.
* It is interesting that these ayahs come immediately after talking about two things: sexual relations outside marriage and the incident of Aisha (ra).
* These instructions were given to the believers to protect them from themselves and from the boundaries of others.
* Story: A woman from al-Ansar came to the Prophet (saws) and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, when I am at home in my own place, I am in a state where I don’t want any strangers to see me. People continue to come, especially male members of my household just barge in. What should I do?” Allah (swt) then revealed Verses 27-28, and later other verses were revealed as well.
* General rule: do not enter a place/house that does not belong to you
* The scholars differ on the word tasta’nis; Allah (swt) later used the word adhina (to seek permission) and could have easily used it here, but used a different word to indicate: to befriend; to ask permission/to feel that you are welcome and accepted by the host (it is more than just mere permission).
* In addition, one must offer greetings to those who inhabit the place being entered. Although tasta’nisu was mentioned before greeting; both are required.
* Upon salam, you are accomplishing two things:
o Declaring your identity as a Muslim
o Offer peace by making du`a’; helps put the host at ease
* If one come to a home, and is told to go back, then they should retreat without offense and in fact they should feel happy. One who is turned away most likely has a special relationship with the inhabitants because the host is comfortable enough to tell them to return later.
* Allah then says that you are not in violation if you enter houses uninhabited where there is some benefit/interest/need for you. Remember that Allah (swt) knows what you reveal and that which you conceal, as well.
What is permissible
* Respecting sanctity of other’s privacy.
* Seeking permission before entering in.
* Greeting when entering in.
* Not facing the door or looking through the door/windows while waiting to be responded.
* Not breaking in or entering into a property in their absence.
* Leave when asked to leave.
What is not permissible
* Invading privacy of others (house, car, computer, phone).
* Not seeking permission before entering in.
* Not greeting when entering in.
* Facing/looking through the door/windows while waiting to be responded.
* Entering/breaking into a property in their absence.
* Refusing to go away when asked
Du`a’ upon entering someone’s house:
“In the name of Allah we enter and in the name of Allah we leave, and upon our lord we place our trust.”
* Upon saying this du`a’, the shayatin that are at your door step to waiting to enter with you will be sent away. If one does not say this or mention the proper salam, the shayatin will enter with the person.
Upon entering one’s home
1. Permission: do not exceed three times unless necessary
2. Combine with the greeting of salam.
3. Do not face the entrance/door.
4. If needed, knock or ring the bell moderately.
5. Identify yourself by stating your name.
6. State the purpose of your visit if needed/asked.
7. Cultural expressions may be used.
8. If entering your own place, adhere to the following Adab
Entering Upon Other: “Peace be upon you. And Allah’s mercy and blessings.”
(30) Tell the believing men to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts. That is purer for them. Indeed, Allah is acquainted with what they do.”
* Gaze: to look steadily or stare with interest, pleasure, or wonder.
* This was told to the believing men and believing women.
Wednesday, March 11, 2009
Scholars say that these ayahs were revealed connected to the story of Aisha (ra).
(22) And let not those among you who are blessed with graces and wealth swear not to give to their kinsmen, the poor, and those who left their homes for Allah’s cause. Let them pardon and forgive. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
• This verse was revealed in response to Abu Bakr (ra). MislaH (participated in slander) was a relative of Abu Bakr that used to be taken care of by Abu Bakr. After the incident of Aisha, Abu Bakr vowed not to support him anymore. This ayah was revealed to:
o Encourage Abu Bakr to continue their good deeds.
o Allah (swt) advises Abu Bakr to do pardon and forgive. And He motivates him by saying “Would you want Allah to forgive you?”
• Abu Bakr replied, “Indeed, I would love for our Lord to forgive us.”
• Three words used for forgiveness:
o `afw: to pardon; to relieve the person from the consequences of his/her actions; to erase a trace of something; occurs only if revenge is appropriate
o SafH: to turn away; to remove; to overlook and to get rid of the effect upon self.
o Maghfirah: only Allah (swt) is capable of ghufran; to absolve; to exonerate
The children of Israel ask Allah (swt) for rain and they get no response. Musa will then beg for rain and Allah (swt) said that amongst you is a man that is sinning and if he is amongst you, then we are not going to grant you rain. Musa then makes the announcement to his community and after that, Allah (swt) granted rain upon Musa’s community. Allah said that that person repented. Musa wanted to know who it was and he asked Allah for who it was and Allah (swt) responded and said that this man has sinned in private his entire life and repented in private, so why should I reveal his identity right now?
• When Yusuf (as) was accused of trying to seduce the wife of the governor of Egypt, Allah (swt) exonerated him through a little baby. In the case of Maryam (as), her baby boy exonerated her. In the case of Aisha (ra), 15 verses came down directly from Allah that exonerated her.
ya'tali - to vow
ulu - people of
al-fadl - grace; excellence; virtue; nobility
masakin - needy
(23) Verily, those who accuse chaste believing women, who never even think of anything touching their chastity and are good believers – are curse in this life and in the Hereafter, and for them will be a great torment. (24) On the day when their tongues, their hands, and their legs will bear witness against them as to what they use to do.
• Allah is creating a special case here in defending women who are accused of being unchaste. He says they will receive a great punishment. He then goes on to discuss this in more detail.
• On that day, their tongues (that were used to accuse others), their hands, and their legs (used to get to those places), all of them will testify against them. The Prophet (saws) said, “On the day of Judgment, the disbeliever will be shown his deeds. He will reject them (that is what disbelief is). It will be said to him, “Here, your neighbors will testify against you. The person will say they are liars. What about your family? They are liars. They didn’t care about me. He will say bring someone who care for me. Allah will then ask his own self (body parts) to testify against him.”
(25) On that day, Allah will pay them the recompense of their deed in full, and they will know that Allah, He is the Manifest Truth.
• The Prophet used to laugh and he was asked why and his response was, “The person will say, ‘I will not accept anyone to testify against me except myself. His mouth will then be sealed and his body parts will testify and speak against him. The kafir will then say to his own body parts, “Damn you! I was trying to protect you from what was going to come next!”
Wednesday, March 4, 2009
(16) And why, when you heard it, did you not say, “It is not for us to speak of this. Exalted are You, Oh Allah; this is a great slander?”
• The Prophet (saws) asked Zaynab, “Ya Zaynab, what do you know and what have you seen?” She said, “By Allah, I know nothing but good. She is the one that used to compete with me amongst the wives of the Prophet (saws), but because of her piety, Allah (swt) protected her.”
• Allah in this ayah is reprimanding the believers for what they should have said.
(17) Allah warns you against returning to the likes of this conduct, eve, if you should be believers.”
• This is a lesson for the Muslims to never repeat it or repeating anything like it.
• Therefore, if anyone is to ever come back to revisits this issue, then they are not amongst the believers.
(18) And Allah makes clear to you the verses, and Allah is Knowing and Wise.”
(19) Indeed, those who like that immorality should be spread among those who have believed will have a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you do not know.
• This ayah is referring to those who like to kill the culture/mood of haya’ (modesty), which in turn leads to behavior that is indecent.
• Haya’ is the moral immune system of a believer.
The sacredness of Marriage
- Those who love to spread immorality among the believers will have a great punishment in both this world and in the Hereafter.
- If you spread immorality especially amongst the believers, who should be setting the standard, then Shaytan has won.
- Allah knows us, He created us. He has set our character, he knows our psychology. So when He sets the principles and guidelines down, they are to protect us from ourselves – from the evil in our nature. If Shaytan and your nafs joined forces, you are destroyed. What Allah swt tells us is better for us.
- Any group that will spread fahisha amongst them, Allah will send them calamities and great diseases that were not known before. All of these diseases have cures, we do not know their cure; but the greatest cure of any disease is prevention; so if you know what would spread the disease, then we should stop that (ex. sexually-transmitted diseases).
- “…If it were not for the mercy of Allah, you would have suffered a severe punishment...” Allah closes this section of the surah with a reminder about His favors upon us. Therefore the rules that are put down in this surah are blessings from Allah because they protect the entire society.
- The believers are just as susceptible to fahisha. These guidelines are from the mercy for you.
- “Oh you who believe! Follow not the steps of Shaytan. Whosoever follows the steps of Shaytan, he indeed leads you to fahisha and evil deeds.” (ayah 21) There is someone out there who does not have your best interests in mind and wants to ruin you. These steps that you are taking in the wrong direction – where does Shaytan want to lead you? Don’t set yourself up, don’t fall for Shaytan’s tricks.
- Once it happens, you cannot blame Shaytan. It was your choice to overlook and ignore the warning signs, and to water things down. On the Day of Judgment, Shaytan will say he has nothing to do with you – he did not force you to do anything. Do not blame him, blame yourself. Allah swt warns us against these steps of Shaytan.
- Ibn Qayyim (ra): “We should resist temptations from the beginning, before it even happens.” We do something, we violate one of the basic rules. You may see something or someone, but do not let it affect you. Remedy the damage that it causes within you. “Resist the thought.” We still have control over this at that point, we do not have control over what other people do. Control your reaction. “If you do not resist the thought, then it will become an idea.” If it becomes an idea, then we need to fight it – an all out war! Allah swt will not judge us on our thoughts, so long as we do not speak about it or act upon it. “If you do not snap out of it, then it will become a fantasy. If you do not fight it at that point, it will become an urge or desire. If you do not wage war against it at that point, then it will become a plan. After this, then the next step will be that the event will actually happen. If this happens, make tawba and remove yourself from the environment and never allow for it to happen again. Or else it will become a habit – an addiction. After this, it will be extremely difficult to change a habit.”
- “Do people think they will believe without being tested?” Do not test yourselves, please – or anyone else. You test yourselves and each other when you put yourself in awkward situations such as “friendships.” You cannot control the thoughts going through the other person’s mind.
- A man will never be alone with a woman, except that Shaytan will be the third.
- We need to bring back our culture of haya`.
- “Had it not been the grace of Allah, none of you would have been purified...” Right now we have so many forces going against your purity. Don’t take your purity for granted. Just like you protect yourself from diseases, you need to protect your emotions and heart – your spiritual purity from anything that might compromise it.
- If someone is trying to spread fah’sha, then it is our duty to stand against it. We must fight it, stop it. We cannot be passive, because if we are then we are included in the punishment. If you are of those that do not love it, do not spread it, but do not speak against it – then you will be included as one of the people who are apart of it.
- We live in a time and place that is anti-haya’. It is good for people to have shame, to feel guilty. When the rumors would begin, someone would automatically resign to kill these rumors so that they would not be destroyed. These days, we have a reelection of an openly cheating husband – he was reelected as mayor! We need to revive the culture of haya’.
- The Sahaba did not come from a culture of haya’ but it was cultivated and promoted – this is what brought back the haya’. One thing you can do is to stay around good people. They will give you the courage to suppress these behaviors and help bring out the goodness. Stay around them because they are good for you. We should not hang out with those who make us feel good about the bad we are doing; who do not make us feel shame about what we are doing.
- Also be careful about what you watch on TV, listen to the radio or read in the books. If you come from a haya’ background, at first you will be disgusted by the disgusting things. But through constant exposure you become desensitized.
Wednesday, February 25, 2009
al-li`an – situation when a man accuses his wife of committing zina
la`nah – to disqualify someone from receiving mercy
ghaDab – anger; rage; but it encompasses la`nah within it as well;
“Verily, those who brought forth the slander are a group among you. Consider it not a bad thing for you. Nay, it is good for you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment. When then, did not the believers, men and women, when you heard it, think good of their own people and say: ‘This is an obvious lie.’ When did they not produce four witnesses against him? Since they have not produced witnesses, then with Allah, they are liars. And if it had not been for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy in this world and the Hereafter, you would have been touched for that [lie] in which you were involved by a great punishment.. when you receive it with your tongues and said with your mouths that of which you had no knowledge and thought it was insignificant while it was, in the sight of Allah, tremendous.
al-ifk: the worse form of slander
`uSbah: union; group; association
imri': individual; person
iktasaba: to obtain
kibrahu: most of it
This ayah came to show the innocence of Aisha. The end of this ayah explains the torment that Abdullah ibn Ubayy ibn Salul (the hypocrite who began the rumors about Aisha).
Iktasaba is used throughout the Qur'an many times and is generally used to refer to earning bad deeds. The only place where the word “kasaba” is used is in one ayah in the Qur'an. This generally means that that person is generally submerged into bad deeds, does not struggle with it, and does not feel bad for earning a bad deed. It is on the form of the word “ifta`ala” and usually means to struggle and go out of your nature to commit that specific action, and in this case, it is “kasaba.”
The matter of Ifk
Azbab an-Nazool: Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, Number 274:
Narrated Aisha (ra), the wife of the Prophet (s):
Whenever Allah's Apostle intended to go on a journey, he used to draw lots among his wives and would take with him the one on whom the lot had fallen.Once he drew lots when he wanted to carry out a Ghazwa, and the lot came upon me. So I proceeded with Allah's Apostle after Allah's order of veiling (the women) had been revealed and thus I was carried in my howdah (on a camel) and dismounted while still in it. We carried on our journey, and when Allah's Apostle had finished his Ghazwa and returned and we approached Medina, Allah's Apostle ordered to proceed at night. When the army was ordered to resume the homeward journey, I got up and walked on till I left the army (camp) behind. When I had answered the call of nature, I went towards my howdah, but behold! A necklace of mine made of Jaz Azfar (a kind of black bead) was broken and I looked for it and my search for it detained me. The group of people who used to carry me, came and carried my howdah on to the back of my camel on which I was riding, considering that I was therein. At that time women were light in weight and were not fleshy for they used to eat little (food), so those people did not feel the lightness of the howdah while raising it up, and I was still a young lady. They drove away the camel and proceeded. Then I found my necklace after the army had gone. I came to their camp but found nobody therein so I went to the place where I used to stay, thinking that they would miss me and come back in my search. While I was sitting at my place, I felt sleepy and slept.
Safwan bin Al-Mu'attil As-Sulami Adh-Dhakw-ani was behind the army. He had started in the last part of the night and reached my stationing place in the morning and saw the figure of a sleeping person. He came to me and recognized me on seeing me for he used to see me before veiling. I got up because of his saying: "Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi rajiun," which he uttered on recognizing me. I covered my face with my garment, and by Allah, he did not say to me a single word except, "Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi rajiun," till he made his she-camel kneel down whereupon he trod on its forelegs and I mounted it. Then Safwan set out, leading the she-camel that was carrying me, till we met the army while they were resting during the hot midday. Then whoever was meant for destruction, fell in destruction, and the leader of the Ifk (forged statement) was 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul. After this we arrived at Medina and I became ill for one month while the people were spreading the forged statements of the people of the Ifk, and I was not aware of anything thereof. But what aroused my doubt while I was sick, was that I was no longer receiving from Allah's Apostle the same kindness as I used to receive when I fell sick. Allah's Apostle would enter upon me, say a greeting and add, "How is that (lady)?" and then depart. That aroused my suspicion but I was not aware of the propagated evil till I recovered from my ailment. I went out with Um Mistah to answer the call of nature towards Al-Manasi, the place where we used to relieve ourselves, and used not to go out for this purpose except from night to night, and that was before we had lavatories close to our houses. And this habit of ours was similar to the habit of the old 'Arabs (in the deserts or in the tents) concerning the evacuation of the bowels, for we considered it troublesome and harmful to take lavatories in the houses. So I went out with Um Mistah who was the daughter of Abi Ruhm bin Abd Manaf, and her mother was daughter of Sakhr bin Amir who was the aunt of Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, and her son was Mistah bin Uthatha. When we had finished our affair, Um Mistah and I came back towards my house. Um Mistah stumbled over her robe whereupon she said, "Let Mistah be ruined!" I said to her, "What a bad word you have said! Do you abuse a man who has taken part in the Battle of Badr?' She said, "O you there! Didn't you hear what he has said?" I said, "And what did he say?" She then told me the statement of the people of the Ifk (forged statement) which added to my ailment. When I returned home, Allah's Apostle came to me, and after greeting, he said, "How is that (lady)?" I said, "Will you allow me to go to my parents?" At that time I intended to be sure of the news through them. Allah's Apostle allowed me and I went to my parents and asked my mother, "O my mother! What are the people talking about?" My mother said, "O my daughter! Take it easy, for by Allah, there is no charming lady who is loved by her husband who has other wives as well, but that those wives would find fault with her." I said, "Subhan Allah! Did the people really talk about that?" That night I kept on weeping the whole night till the morning. My tears never stopped, nor did I sleep, and morning broke while I was still weeping, Allah's Apostle called 'Ali bin Abi Talib and Usama bin Zaid when the Divine Inspiration delayed, in order to consult them as to the idea of divorcing his wife.
Usama bin Zaid told Allah's Apostle of what he knew about the innocence of his wife and of his affection he kept for her. He said, "O Allah's Apostle! She is your wife, and we do not know anything about her except good." But 'Ali bin Abi Talib said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah does not impose restrictions on you; and there are plenty of women other than her. If you however, ask (her) slave girl, she will tell you the truth." 'Aisha added: So Allah's Apostle called for Barira and said, "O Barira! Did you ever see anything which might have aroused your suspicion? (as regards Aisha). Barira said, "By Allah Who has sent you with the truth, I have never seen anything regarding Aisha which I would blame her for except that she is a girl of immature age who sometimes sleeps and leaves the dough of her family unprotected so that the domestic goats come and eat it." So Allah's Apostle got up (and addressed) the people an asked for somebody who would take revenge on 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul then. Allah's Apostle, while on the pulpit, said, "O Muslims! Who will help me against a man who has hurt me by slandering my family? By Allah, I know nothing except good about my family, and people have blamed a man of whom I know nothing except good, and he never used to visit my family except with me," Sad bin Muadh Al-Ansari got up and said, "O Allah's Apostle! By Allah, I will relieve you from him. If he be from the tribe of (Bani) Al-Aus, then I will chop his head off; and if he be from our brethren, the Khazraj, then you give us your order and we will obey it." On that, Sad bin 'Ubada got up, and he was the chief of the Khazraj, and before this incident he had been a pious man but he was incited by his zeal for his tribe. He said to Sad (bin Muadh), "By Allah the Eternal, you have told a lie! You shall not kill him and you will never be able to kill him!" On that, Usaid bin Hudair, the cousin of Sad (bin Muadh) got up and said to Sad bin 'Ubada, "You are a liar! By Allah the Eternal, we will surely kill him; and you are a hypocrite defending the hypocrites!" So the two tribes of Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj got excited till they were on the point of fighting with each other while Allah's Apostle was standing on the pulpit. Allah's Apostle continued quietening them till they became silent whereupon he became silent too.
On that day I kept on weeping so much that neither did my tears stop, nor could I sleep. In the morning my parents were with me, and I had wept for two nights and a day without sleeping and with incessant tears till they hought that my liver would burst with weeping. While they were with me and I was weeping, an Ansari woman asked permission to see me. I admitted her and she sat and started weeping with me. While I was in that state, Allah's Apostle came to us, greeted, and sat down. He had never sat with me since the day what was said, was said. He had stayed a month without receiving any Divine Inspiration concerning my case. Allah's Apostle recited the Tashahhud after he had sat down, and then said, "Thereafter, O 'Aisha! I have been informed such and-such a thing about you; and if you are innocent, Allah will reveal your innocence, and if you have committed a sin, then ask for Allah's forgiveness and repent to Him, for when a slave confesses his sin and then repents to Allah, Allah accepts his repentance." When Allah's Apostle had finished his speech, my tears ceased completely so that I no longer felt even a drop thereof. Then I said to my father, "Reply to Allah's Apostle on my behalf as to what he said." He said, "By Allah, I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle." Then I said to my mother, "Reply to Allah's Apostle." She said, "I do not know what to say to Allah's Apostle." Still a young girl as I was and though I had little knowledge of Quran, I said, "By Allah, I know that you heard this story (of the Ifk) so much so that it has been planted in your minds and you have believed it. So now, if I tell you that I am innocent, and Allah knows that I am innocent, you will not believe me; and if I confess something, and Allah knows that I am innocent of it, you will believe me. By Allah, I cannot find of you an example except that of Joseph's father: "So (for me) patience is most fitting against that which you assert and it is Allah (Alone) Whose help can be sought. Then I turned away and lay on my bed, and at that time I knew that I was innocent and that Allah would reveal my innocence. But by Allah, I never thought that Allah would sent down about my affair, Divine Inspiration that would be recited (forever), as I considered myself too unworthy to be talked of by Allah with something that was to be recited: but I hoped that Allah's Apostle might have a vision in which Allah would prove my innocence. By Allah, Allah's Apostle had not left his seat and nobody had left the house when the Divine Inspiration came to Allah's Apostle . So there overtook him the same hard condition which used to overtake him (when he was Divinely Inspired) so that the drops of his sweat were running down, like pearls, though it was a (cold) winter day, and that was because of the heaviness of the Statement which was revealed to him. When that state of Allah's Apostle was over, and he was smiling when he was relieved, the first word he said was, "Aisha, Allah has declared your innocence." My mother said to me, "Get up and go to him." I said, "By Allah, I will not go to him and I will not thank anybody but Allah."
”Verily! Those who brought forth the slander (against Aisha) are a group among you. Consider it not a bad thing for you. Nay, it is good for you. Unto every man among them will be paid that which he had earned of the sin, and as for him among them who had the greater share therein, his will be a great torment. Why then, did not the believers, men and women, when you heard it (the slander) think good of their own people and say: "This (charge) is an obvious lie?" Why did they not produce four witnesses? Since they (the slanderers) have not produced witnesses! Then with Allah they are the liars. Had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy unto you in this world and in the Hereafter, a great torment would have touched you for that whereof you had spoken. When you were propagating it with your tongues, and uttering with your mouths that whereof you had no knowledge, you counted it a little thing, while with Allah it was very great. And why did you not, when you heard it, say? "It is not right for us to speak of this. Glory be to You (O Allah) this is a great lie." Allah forbids you from it and warns you not to repeat the like of it forever, if you are believers. And Allah makes the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) plain to you, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.
Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you know not. And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, (Allah would have hastened the punishment upon you). And that Allah is full of kindness, Most Merciful.” (24: 11-20)
When Allah revealed this to confirm my innocence, Abu Bakr As-Siddiq who used to provide for Mistah bin Uthatha because of the latter's kinship to him and his poverty, said, "By Allah, I will never provide for Mistah anything after what he has said about Aisha."
So Allah revealed:
"Let not those among you who are good and are wealthy swear not to give (help) to their kinsmen, those in need, and those who have left their homes for Allah's Cause. Let them Pardon and forgive (i.e. do not punish them). Do you not love that should forgive you? Verily Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful." (24.22)
Abu Bakr said, "Yes, by Allah, I wish that Allah should forgive me." So he resumed giving Mistah the aid he used to give him before and said, "By Allah, I will never withhold it from him at all." Aisha further said: Allah's Apostle also asked Zainab bint Jahsh about my case. He said, "O Zainab! What have you seen?" She replied, "O Allah's Apostle! I protect my hearing and my sight (by refraining from telling lies). I know nothing but good (about Aisha)." Of all the wives of Allah's Apostle, it was Zainab who aspired to receive from him the same favor as I used to receive, yet, Allah saved her (from telling lies) because of her piety. But her sister, Hamna, kept on fighting on her behalf so she was destroyed as were those who invented and spread the slander.
* These ten ayahs are revealed in regards to this incident. This is the worst type of slander because it pertains to one of the most virtuous, pure women. The higher the status of the person you accuse falsely, the worse your accusation is. Allah establishes that those who slandered are from amongst the community.
* Do not think it is bad for you, it is good for you. For Aisha, it establishes her innocence, her status in Islam, in ayat that will be recited until the end of time. The most innocent of all women: Aisha (ra) and the mother of Isa (as). They were both accused falsely, and their defense was from Allah.
* Each person that accused her will have their own punishment, and the one that had the greater share of this will have a great punishment. A person who creates an evil precedent will not only carry the burden of his sin, but also the sin of those who follow him (in this case anyone who shares that rumor). That is why it is very bad to set a precedent that is a misguidance, and will carry on. This is very serious.
* Why did not the believers when they heard of this think of themselves? The believers should have thought better of themselves and of each other. In Islam, everyone is innocent until proven guilty. You should always give the other person the benefit of the doubt. Even if there were any grounds for it, they should have provided four witnesses against him. If they do not, it is considered a lie with Allah. Now, with Allah those people are considered liars.
* It was the favor of Allah, and a mercy upon you in this world and the Hereafter, that you are not punished for such a great offense - but it is a good lesson for you. Slander is not insignificant, especially to the person who is being attacked. With Allah swt this may be the worst thing you could have done to them. Be careful of what you say. You think of it as insignificant, but the words could be very heavy with Allah swt.Your browser may not support display of this image.
Tuesday, February 24, 2009
Below is a booklet mentioned that Shaykh Muhammad mentioned in class written by Muhammad Ibrahim al-Hamad: The Evil Consequences of Adultery and Fornication
Wednesday, February 18, 2009
Nearly 4 out of 10 U.S. babies are born out of wedlock.
78 rapes an hour; 683,280 rapes each year.
1 out of 3 women will be sexually assaulted in her lifetime.
Allah swt says, “Do not even come near zina.” Not only is zina haram, but anything leading to zina is haram. This is very serious; it prevents an individual from entering Jannah.
Surat an-Nur: 4 – 10 Word by Word Breakdown
Alathee, alatheena (pl) – those, that, the one who
Yarmoon – to charge, to accuse
Mohsin – to be protected, to be preserved; a man/woman who preserves their chastity or who is married
Lam – negation in the past tense
Ya’tu (pl) – to come, to arrive, to bring forth
Arba` - 4
Shuhada – witnesses
Thamaneena – 80
Taqbal – to accept
Shahada – to bear testimony
Abadan – forever, eternally
Oola’ika – those
Al-fasiqun – someone who transgresses or goes astray
Tawba – to repent (admits guilt, feels remorse and seeks forgiveness)
Min – from, among
B`ad – after
Aslaha – to fix or to guide
Inna – indeed
Ghafoor – forgiving
Raheem – merciful
Azwaj – spouse, pair
Nafs – self, soul
Ahad – one, each, him
Sadiqeen – the truthful
Khameesa – fifth
Kathibeen - liars
Yadra`u – obstruct, prevent, keep away
Un – from, about, of, on behalf of
Ghadab – anger, wrath
Laola – had not
Fadhl – favor, bounty, blessing
Tawab – one who accepts in repentance
Hakim – all wise
Verse 4, 5: Slander
“And those who accuse chaste women, and produce not four witnesses, flog them with eighty stripes, and reject their testimony forever. They indeed are the rebellious. Except those who repent thereafter and do righteous deeds; for such verily, Allah is Oft the Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
Whosoever accuses a chaste woman of adultery – here is it clear, due to the context, that the person is accusing the women of zina – if they fail of proving their accusation of zina, they will have to be punished. In order for them to prove zina, they must provide four independent witnesses. The consequence of slander is that (a) they are flogged eighty times, (b) you can never accept their testimony, (c) that person is considered a Fasiq, they are not trustworthy. Allah will make an exception for those who repent to Allah (swt) and do righteous deeds – they have to prove their repentance by living a righteous lifestyle, to earn back their credibility.
This type of accusation, because of the damage that it causes and the pain it gives the individual, is considered one of the seven major sins if it cannot be proven. It is a crime. The minute you share this accusation of zina with someone else without having four eye witnesses, you are automatically considered a fasiq and the punishment in the Qur’an applies under Islamic law. This is the case even if they are truthful – because zina should not be publicized. This should be something forgotten, covered up, not publicized. The shari’ah does not want these accusations to become common practice. Now that the act is public, for the person now he or she does not care – haya’ is destroyed. Now they won’t care about committing the act, which will spread like a disease – more people won’t care. Moral standards will deteriorate. Haya’ was lost. If the accused is already a fasiq and known for committing sins openly and their chastity is not established, then the accuser is not to be punished for accusing them. The verse says “chaste women” because that is the most common thing, but it is also true for someone who accuses a chaste man.
HOMEWORK: Do the four witnesses need to be men or can they be women?
The accused must be a Mohsin: (a) sane, (b) adult, (c) Muslim, (d) chaste, (e) must be a free person.
The accuser must be a Muslim and free.
Case A: a Mohsin sister is accused of zina. The accuser must show four witnesses.
Case B: A sister who is not Mohsin is accused of zina. Technically, the accuser cannot be punished.
When these verses were revealed, the Chief of the Ansar asked what was he supposed to do if he found his wife committing adultery, wait to stop them until he brings four witnesses? Then this actually happened with Hilal bin Umayyah, who went and told the Prophet (s) that he found his wife committing adultery. Then the Prophet (s) told him to bring four witnesses or else he would be punished. At this there was a lot of anxiety because people did not see how this would be just. Hilal said, “By Allah, I hope that Allah will make for me a way out from this problem.”
The verses were revealed a little later… The Prophet (s) told Hilal to rejoice, and called Hilal’s wife to him. He then recited the verses to them both, and also reminded them of the severe punishments of the Hereafter. Hilal said he was speaking the truth about her, and she said he was lying. Then Hilal gave the testimony four times, and then he was warned of the significance of the fifth testimony (the curse of Allah swt) – but he was not afraid and made the fifth testimony. Then his wife gave testimony four times, and then she was warned of the significance of the fifth testimony (the curse of Allah swt) and she hesitated for awhile and was going to confess her guilt, but then she finally gave the fifth testimony. The Prophet (s) then separated them and told them that the child that came from her would have no father, and this child would not be accused. This was not divorce, so she did not receive alimony or her normal rights. Then the Prophet (s) made a prediction that if she gives birth to a male child with red hair and skinny legs, then it is Hilal’s child; but if she gives birth to a curly-haired child with thick legs then she is guilty of what she was accused of. She gave birth to the latter, and the Prophet (s) said he would have punished her were it not for the oath she swore.
Only between husband and wife
Must be an eye-witness
if a man found his wife cheating, he must bear testimony of the incident four times in court, and swearing by Allah swt that he is one speaking the truth. And then he must bear witness one more time to this incident, evoking the curse of Allah swt on himself if he is lying. Then the wife is given the opportunity to avert punishment by bearing witness four times that he is telling a lie, by Allah swt; and then she must swear a fifth time bearing witness that he is lying and evoking the curse of Allah on herself if he is saying the truth and she is lying.
If both of them swear:
the husband cannot be punished for slander;
the wife cannot be punished for adultery;
if a child comes from the union, the husband does not have to claim it is his;
the husband and wife are separated for life; their marriage is over.
Logistics of Swearing
The swearing should be done in a sacred place. (Makkah: black stone; Madina: Prophet’s mimbar (s); Jerusalem: the rock; anywhere else: in a masjid)
There should be a gathering of people to watch this – a public oath (adds to the pressure of the holiness of the oath being made)
After `Asr prayer
If he accuses a specific man for committing adultery with his wife, and then the adultery is not proven, then he can be punished for slander against the man he accused.
HOMEWORK #2: Why in the case of the man does he invoke the curse of Allah swt if he is lying, and in the case of the women she invokes the wrath of Allah swt if she is lying?
Answer to Homework from Last Week:
Why did the verse say zaniya wa zani (putting the woman first) when addressing the consequences of zina?
Women entice men into committing zina more.
The woman has to bear the risk of having a child, she will have to deal with the consequences more. She is also more rational, while the man is ruled by his passions!
Look around and come back with a better answer!
Misc note: a slave under Islamic law only has to bear half the punishment of a normal citizen.
Wednesday, February 11, 2009
Facts about surat al-Nur
- Revealed six years after Hijrah
- It is the 24th surah in the Qur’an
- It is entitled surat al-Nur
- al-Nur is one of the names of Allah (swt).
- There is a connection between surat al-Nur and surat al-Mu’minun (before al-Nur). It is mentioned that the believers protect their chastity. Allah (swt) praised them for that. Surat al-Nur tells us how one can preserve his/her chastity.
Ayahs 1 & 2
|surah||Qur’anic terminology that comes from the root word “s w r.” Sur means fence, which means it surrounds to protect something. |
A surah in the Qur’an – contains a set of verses.
The word surah is mentioned 9 times in the Qur'an.
|anzalnaha||We have revealed to you|
|faraDnaha||FaraDa – to break down; to establish; to decree |
fariDah – an obligatory act
|ayat||signs; indication; physical evidence|
|bayyinat||clear; used to prove something; evidence|
|la`allakum||perhaps you (plural)|
|tadhakkarun||plural of tadhakkara, which comes from dhakara |
Dhakara – to remember on your own
Tadhakkar – remember as a reaction to stimulus
|al-Zani||Zina: a sexual act that involves intercourse outside marriage. |
Zani – male; Zaniah – female
Considered zani until tawbah, or unless he
performs zina regularly
|fajlidu||(v.) lash; whip|
|kulla waHidin minhuma||each one of them (both)|
|wa la||la of prohibition|
|ta’khudhkum||to be overtaken by|
|ra’fah||mercy; pity; compassion|
|din Allah||the religion of Allah; ruling; law|
|in kuntum tu’minuna||if you (plural) believe|
|wal yawm al-Akhir||and the Last Day|
|wa li-yash-had||a command to witness|
|`adhabahuma||their punishment (both)|
|min al-Mu’minin||amongst the believers|
|mushrik||one who associates with Allah another deity|
|Hurrima||was made forbidden (passive)|
|dhalika `ala||that upon|
- Starting off this surah with an indefinite word, “surah” without being defined with (al-) has caused discussion and debate amongst scholars.
- To get the intention of the reader. “Surat….” What about it? “…we have brought it down…”
- We have revealed as a manifest/clear indication (in terms of its guidance)
- This surah covers a variety of issues (penal laws, etc).
- The Prophet (saws) was approached by a man who said, “My son was employed by this man and he committed zina with his wife (of his boss). I paid a ransom with 100 sheep and a slave girl for him to be forgiven. When I asked the people of knowledge, they said that he should be lashed 100 times and punished for an entire year through an exile.” The prophet (saws) said, “I will settle the ruling of this matter in accordance to the book of Allah. The slave girl & sheep should be returned to you and your son is to be lashed 100 times.”
- Zina involves: illegal sexual intercourse outside of marriage involving consent
- Different types of zina: fornication, adultery, or rape
- A man came to the Prophet (saws) and publicly said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, allow me to commit zina.” The Prophet (saws) counseled with him, connected with him and said, “Would you accept that for your mother? People don’t accept it for their mothers.” This shows that it is an act that is rejected by people. But unfortunately, we live in a society where this is accepted and even celebrated.
- al-Razi makes an argument that why zina is wrong. He says that zina is degrading to women for women are not sex objects (this is being said 900 years ago). Allah (swt) created them to be partners of men. That cannot be achieve when she is devoted to him and he is devoted to her.
- Why did the next ayah start with al-Zaniah instead of al-Zani? Find out for next week.
- This verse applied only if the person committing zina is unmarried.
- In addition, they shall be exiled for one year.
- These punishments are only carried out under an Islamic state.
- “Do not feel sorrow for them in where the laws of Allah are established.”
Wednesday, February 4, 2009
“Nur dispels darkness.” - MF
Disclaimer: The quotes are paraphrased because I could not get them word for word; I tried to get the references for them so that you can look up the original quote. Also, names may be misspelled.
Nice long du`a’
Indeed all praise is to Allah. We seek refuge in Allah swt from the evil of our own souls and the evil of our actions. He who Allah guides, there is none that could misguide, and vice versa. I bear witness in Allah and his Messenger Muhammad (s). O you who believe have taqwa, and do not die except in a state of Islam. Fear your Lord who created man and woman. O you who believe have taqwa of Allah and always speak the truth, He will guide you. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has truly achieved a great thing.
“Taqwa is acting in obedience to Allah swt, in hope of His mercy.”
Correct definition of taqwa: You do righteous deeds and you act in an obedient way, hoping in the mercy of Allah, upon a light from Allah swt. Leaving acts of disobedience to Allah, out of fear of Allah, upon a light from Allah swt.
Tawq defines the two conditions for actions to be accepted. In order for an action to be accepted it must be: (a) sincere; (b) must conform to the guidance of Allah swt, sent through the Prophet (s).
This is the Course of Light, that focuses on the Chapter of Light: Surat an-Nur, chapter 24. This course will be broken down into two eight-week parts: Feb 4th – March 27th & April 8th – May 27th.
1. Comprehensiveness of the Qur’an
2. Inclusiveness & thoroughness of the Shari’ah
3. Universality & generality of Islam
4. Practicality & acceptability of Islam to our social issues
5. Understand the lessons from each ayah
Our religion has been perfected, as stated in the Qur’an. This is a reminder to us, as we see the Shari’ah and the Qur’an being challenged these days, to look to Islam (specifically the Qur’an) for the answer.
Lessons from the Surah:
1. Understand the severity of committing zina
2. Observe the incident of suspicion surrounding Aisha (ra)
3. Understanding the meaning of seeking permission before entering ones house
4. Observe the rulings of Hijab
5. The command from Allah to get married and how to keep chaste if one is unable to get married
By the end of this course, students will be able to…
1. Understand the punishment behind committing zina
2. Understand al-Ifk (the slander) and the punishment for slandering
3. Understand the etiquette of entering one’s home
4. Understanding the implications of Hijab in Islam
5. Understand the importance of marriage in Islam
The Importance of Knowledge
Imam Ajurni (ra) : “The seeker of knowledge should know that Allah has made worship obligatory upon the Muslim, and that this worship is not possible without knowledge. Therefore, seeking knowledge is also obligatory. Ignorance does not befit the Believer, so the Believer should seek knowledge to dispel ignorance. Allah swt sets the terms for ibadah. The seeker of knowledge should strive hard in this quest, be sincere, and not be amazed with himself. Acknowledge this is a favor upon him by Allah – Allah gave him this knowledge, and the ability to pursue it.”
1. Worship is obligatory upon a believer
2. Worship isn’t possible without knowledge
3. Seeking knowledge is obligatory because you cannot worship without knowledge
4. Ignorance is not befitting a believer
5. Knowledge dispels ignorance
6. A person should continue to seek knowledge their whole life
A seeker of knowledge should…
1. Be very sincere; if you compromise your sincerity in the pursuit of knowledge, then you are no longer pursuing knowledge
1. If you are insincere, knowledge will take you to Hellfire. Knowledge will not come, except for those who come for Allah subhanahu wa ta`ala.
2. Strive hard to seek knowledge – the more you put in, the more you get out
3. Should not become amazed at themselves, avoid arrogance
4. Acknowledge that this is a favor from Allah swt on him
If we’re not interested in learning, it is either a) we don’t really have the truth; b) we are ignorant, happy with this, and do not understand this treasure we have.
“We have to humble ourselves for knowledge, and be very patient.” - MF
“Knowledge is beautified with adab. Talking too much leads a person to losing their haya`. A person should remain reserved and maintain a level of seriousness. The importance of silence; it covers your sins.” - Shaykh X
If you do not thoroughly understand something, and you do not know it well, do not speak of it. `Ilm is not something to be amused by – it is serious. This knowledge is your deen. It rules your life.
The nobility of any science is determined by its subject matter. The knowledge of Tafsir is the most noble of all sciences. The subject matter here is the words of Allah swt. “This is the Book that We have sent down full of blessings…” (Surah Saad, Verse 29) Every minute that you spend in studying it, is blessed.
Sahih Muslim, pg. 2074: “There is not a group of people that come together (in the Houses of Allah*), mentioning Allah, reciting His book and studying on it, that angels surround them and they will be showered with the mercy of Allah swt, and tranquility will descend upon them. And Allah swt mentions them amongst those that are in Heaven….”
*mentioned in some ahadith, not specified in others
“There is not a group of people that come together in a gathering and remember Allah, they will not leave that gathering until it is said to them as they leave, “Get up! Allah has forgiven your sins! And your sins (your faults) have been replaced with good deeds.” (Albani)
The statements and stories of the scholars are some of the most inspirational for students seeking knowledge.
“No man or woman seeks a path of knowledge, that Allah does not make them a path to Paradise.” (status of knowledge, it’s a hadith)
Surat an-Nur – The Light
This surah is all about social issues, decency and chastity, penal laws. Penal laws provide social and moral standards, that helps provide order within the society. Islam has a very unique way of achieving its objectives. It is not all about hudood (laws), but also developing moral excellence within the community.
Why set severe punishments? There must be two things for order to be maintained: a) ilzam – to force and b) iltizam – to commit. You need the enforcement and you need the commitment. If people commit, then you don’t need enforcement. Surat an-Nur helped with establishing this.
It is named “The Light” because…
1. it contains the light of guidance
2. it often mentions & discusses light
3. it talks about Allah swt as the light of the heavens and the earth
The Beautiful Beginning
The link between this surah and the previous surah. In Surat al-Muminoon, the previous surah, Allah swt says “Sucessful are the Believers. They are protective of their chastity.” Then in Surat an-Nur, Allah swt tells the Believers how they can protect their chastity. It teaches you how to achieve this great status in life. Allah swt also talks about creation, and how creation can preserve itself and rise itself to a noble state of existence.